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Phase Transformations

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  • Relations between Van der Waals constants and the parameters of the critical state of a substance: $$V_{M\,cr} = 3b, \; p_{cr} = \frac{a}{27b^2}, \; T_{cr} = \frac{8a}{27Rb}.$$
  • Relation between the critical parameters for a mole of substance: $$p_{cr} V_{M\, cr} = (3/8)RT_{cr}.$$
  • Clausius-Clapeyron equation: $$\frac{dp}{dT} = \frac{q_{12}}{T\left(V_2^\prime - V_1^\prime\right)},$$ where $q_{12}$ is the specific heat absorbed in the transformation $1 \rightarrow 2$, $V_1^\prime$ and $V_2^\prime$ are the specific volumes of phases $1$ and $2$.


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