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# Liquids. Capillary Effects

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• Additional (capillary) pressure in a liquid under an arbitrary surface (Laplace's forumla): $$\Delta p = \alpha \left(\frac{1}{R_1} + \frac{1}{R_2}\right),$$ where $\alpha$ is the surface tension of a given liquid.
• Free energy increment of the surface layer of a liquid: $$dF = \alpha dS,$$ where $dS$ is the area increment of the surface layer.
• Amount of heat required to form a unit area of the liquid surface layer during the isothermal increase of its surface: $$q = -T \frac{d\alpha}{dT}.$$

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