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8

Ch01:
Rational Numbers
1
Ch02:
Linear Equations in One Variable
21
Ch03:
37
Ch04:
Practical Geometry
57
Ch05:
Data Handling
69
Ch06:
Squares and Square Roots
89
Ch07:
Cubes and Cube Roots
109
Ch08:
Comparing Quantities
117
Ch09:
Algebraic Expressions and Identities
137
Ch10:
Visualising Solid Shapes
153
Ch11:
Mensuration
169
Ch12:
Exponents and Powers
193
Ch13:
Direct and Inverse Proportions
201
Ch14:
Factorisation
217
Ch15:
Introduction to Graphs
231
Ch16:
Playing with Numbers
249

9

Ch01:
NUMBER SYSTEMS
1
01.1
Introduction
1
01.2
Irrational Numbers
5
01.3
Real Numbers and their Decimal Expansions
8
01.4
Representing Real Numbers on the Number Line
15
01.5
Operations on Real Numbers
18
01.6
Laws of Exponents for Real Numbers
24
01.7
Summary
27
Ch02:
POLYNOMIALS
28
02.1
Introduction
28
02.2
Polynomials in One Variable
28
02.3
Zeroes of a Polynomial
32
02.4
Remainder Theorem
35
02.5
Factorisation of Polynomials
40
02.6
Algebraic Identities
44
02.7
Summary
50
Ch03:
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
51
03.1
Introduction
51
03.2
Cartesian System
54
03.3
Plotting a Point in the Plane if its Coordinates are given
61
03.4
Summary
65
Ch04:
LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
66
04.1
Introduction
66
04.2
Linear Equations
66
04.3
Solution of a Linear Equation
68
04.4
Graph of a Linear Equation in Two Variables
70
04.5
Equations of Lines Parallel to x-axis and y-axis
75
04.6
Summary
77
Ch05:
INTRODUCTION TO EUCLID’S GEOMETRY
78
05.1
Introduction
78
05.2
Euclid’s Definitions, Axioms and Postulates
80
05.3
Equivalent Versions of Euclid’s Fifth Postulate
86
05.4
Summary
88
Ch06:
LINES AND ANGLES
89
06.1
Introduction
89
06.2
Basic Terms and Definitions
90
06.3
Intersecting Lines and Non-intersecting Lines
92
06.4
Pairs of Angles
92
06.5
Parallel Lines and a Transversal
98
06.6
Lines Parallel to the same Line
101
06.7
Angle Sum Property of a Triangle
105
06.8
Summary
108
Ch07:
TRIANGLES
108
07.1
Introduction
109
07.2
Congruence of Triangles
109
07.3
Criteria for Congruence of Triangles
112
07.4
Some Properties of a Triangle
120
07.5
Some More Criteria for Congruence of Triangles
125
07.6
Inequalities in a Triangle
129
07.7
Summary
134
Ch08:
135
08.1
Introduction
135
08.2
Angle Sum Property of a Quadrilateral
136
08.3
137
08.4
Properties of a Parallelogram
139
08.5
Another Condition for a Quadrilteral to be a Parallelogram
145
08.6
The Mid-point Theorem
148
08.7
Summary
151
Ch09:
AREAS OF PARALLELOGRAMS AND TRIANGLES
152
09.1
Introduction
152
09.2
Figures on the same Base and Between the same Parallels
154
09.3
Parallelogramms on the same Base and between the same Parallels
156
09.4
Triangles on the same Base and between the same Parallels
160
09.5
Summary
167
Ch10:
CIRCLES
168
10.1
Introduction
168
10.2
Circles and its Related Terms : A Review
169
10.3
Angle Subtended by a Chord at a Point
171
10.4
Perpendicular from the Centre to a Chord
173
10.5
Circle through Three Points
174
10.6
Equal Chords and their Distances from the Centre
176
10.7
Angle Subtended by an Arc of a Circle
179
10.8
182
10.9
Summary
187
Ch11:
CONSTRUCTIONS
187
11.1
Introduction
188
11.2
Basic Constructions
189
11.3
Some Constructions of Triangles
191
11.4
Summary
196
Ch12:
HERON’S FORMULA
197
12.1
Introduction
197
12.2
Area of a Triangle – by Heron’s Formula
199
12.3
Application of Heron’s Formula in finding Areas of Quadrilaterals
203
12.4
Summary
207
Ch13:
SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES
208
13.1
Introduction
208
13.2
Surface Area of a Cuboid and a Cube
208
13.3
Surface Area of a Right Circular Cylinder
214
13.4
Surface Area of a Right Circular Cone
217
13.5
Surface Area of a Sphere
222
13.6
Volume of a Cuboid
226
13.7
Volume of a Cylinder
228
13.8
Volume of a Right Circular Cone
231
13.9
Volume of a Sphere
234
13.10
Summary
237
Ch14:
STATISTICS
238
14.1
Introduction
238
14.2
Collection of Data
239
14.3
Presentation of Data
240
14.4
Geographical Representation of Data
247
14.5
Measures of Central Tendency
261
14.6
Summary
270
Ch15:
PROBABILITY
271
15.1
Introduction
271
15.2
Probability – an Experimental Approach
272
15.3
Summary
285

10

Ch01:
Real Numbers
1
01.1
Introduction
1
01.2
Euclid’s Division Lemma
2
01.3
The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
7
01.4
Revisiting Irrational Numbers
11
01.5
Revisiting Rational Numbers and Their Decimal Expansions
15
01.6
Summary
18
Ch02:
Polynomials
20
02.1
Introduction
20
02.2
Geometrical Meaning of the Zeroes of a Polynomial
21
02.3
Relationship between Zeroes and Coefficients of a Polynomial
28
02.4
Division Algorithm for Polynomials
33
02.5
Summary
37
Ch03:
Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
38
03.1
Introduction
38
03.2
Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
39
03.3
Graphical Method of Solution of a Pair of Linear Equations
44
03.4
Algebraic Methods of Solving a Pair of Linear Equations
50
03.4.1
Substitution Method
50
03.4.2
Elimination Method
54
03.4.3
Cross-Multiplication Method
57
03.5
Equations Reducible to a Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
63
03.6
Summary
69
Ch04:
70
04.1
Introduction
70
04.2
71
04.3
Solution of a Quadratic Equation by Factorisation
74
04.4
Solution of a Quadratic Equation by Completing the Square
76
04.5
Nature of Roots
88
04.6
Summary
91
Ch05:
Arithmetic Progressions
93
05.1
Introduction
93
05.2
Arithmetic Progressions
95
05.3
nth Term of an AP
100
05.4
Sum of First n Terms of an AP
107
05.5
Summary
116
Ch06:
Triangles
117
06.1
Introduction
117
06.2
Similar Figures
118
06.3
Similarity of Triangles
123
06.4
Criteria for Similarity of Triangles
129
06.5
Areas of Similar Triangles
141
06.6
Pythagoras Theorem
144
06.7
Summary
154
Ch07:
Coordinate Geometry
155
07.1
Introduction
155
07.2
Distance Formula
156
07.3
Section Formula
162
07.4
Area of a Triangle
168
07.5
Summary
172
Ch08:
Introduction to Trigonometry
173
08.1
Introduction
173
08.2
Trigonometric Ratios
174
08.3
Trigonometric Ratios of Some Specific Angles
181
08.4
Trigonometric Ratios of Complementary Angles
187
08.5
Trigonometric Identities
190
08.6
Summary
194
Ch09:
Some Applications of Trigonometry
195
09.1
Introduction
195
09.2
Heights and Distances
196
09.3
Summary
205
Ch10:
Circles
206
10.1
Introduction
206
10.2
Tangent to a Circle
207
10.3
Number of Tangents from a Point on a Circle
209
10.4
Summary
215
Ch11:
Constructions
216
11.1
Introduction
216
11.2
Division of a Line Segment
216
11.3
Construction of Tangents to a Circle
220
11.4
Summary
222
Ch12:
Areas Related to Circles
223
12.1
Introduction
223
12.2
Perimeter and Area of a Circle — A Review
224
12.3
Areas of Sector and Segment of a Circle
226
12.4
Areas of Combinations of Plane Figures
231
12.5
Summary
238
Ch13:
Surface Areas and Volumes
239
13.1
Introduction
239
13.2
Surface Area of a Combination of Solids
240
13.3
Volume of a Combination of Solids
245
13.4
Conversion of Solid from One Shape to Another
248
13.5
Frustum of a Cone
252
13.6
Summary
258
Ch14:
Statistics
260
14.1
Introduction
260
14.2
Mean of Grouped Data
260
14.3
Mode of Grouped Data
272
14.4
Median of Grouped Data
277
14.5
Graphical Representation of Cumulative Frequency Distribution
289
14.6
Summary
293
Ch15:
Probability
295
15.1
Introduction
295
15.2
Probability — A Theoretical Approach
296
15.3
Summary
312

Science

8

Ch01:
CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
1
Ch02:
MICROORGANISMS : FRIEND AND FOE
17
Ch03:
SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND PLASTICS
32
Ch04:
MATERIALS : METALS AND NON-METALS
44
Ch05:
COAL AND PETROLEUM
56
Ch06:
COMBUSTION AND FLAME
64
Ch07:
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
77
Ch08:
CELL — STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS
90
Ch09:
REPRODUCTION IN ANIMALS
100
Ch10:
113
Ch11:
FORCE AND PRESSURE
127
Ch12:
FRICTION
146
Ch13:
SOUND
157
Ch14:
CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
172
Ch15:
SOME NATURAL PHENOMENA
184
Ch16:
LIGHT
199
Ch17:
STARS AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM
215
Ch18:
POLLUTION OF AIR AND WATER
239

9

Ch01:
MATTER IN OUR SURROUNDINGS
1
Ch02:
IS MATTER AROUND US PURE
14
Ch03:
ATOMS AND MOLECULES
31
Ch04:
STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM
46
Ch05:
THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
57
Ch06:
TISSUES
68
Ch07:
DIVERSITY IN LIVING ORGANISMS
80
Ch08:
MOTION
98
Ch09:
FORCE AND LAWS OF MOTION
114
Ch10:
GRAVITATION
131
Ch11:
WORK AND ENERGY
146
Ch12:
SOUND
160
Ch13:
WHY DO WE FALL ILL
176
Ch14:
NATURAL RESOURCES
189
Ch15:
IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD RESOURCES
203

10

Ch01:
Chemical Reactions and Equations
1
Ch02:
Acids, Bases and Salts
17
Ch03:
Metals and Non-metals
37
Ch04:
Carbon and its Compounds
58
Ch05:
Periodic Classification of Elements
79
Ch06:
Life Processes
93
Ch07:
Control and Coordination
114
Ch08:
How do Organisms Reproduce?
127
Ch09:
Heredity and Evolution
142
Ch10:
Light – Reflection and Refraction
160
Ch11:
Human Eye and Colourful World
187
Ch12:
Electricity
199
Ch13:
Magnetic Effects of Electric Current
223
Ch14:
Sources of Energy
242
Ch15:
Our Environment
256
Ch16:
Management of Natural Resources
266

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