- Electric field strength near the surface of a conductor in vacuum: $$E_n = \frac{\sigma}{{\varepsilon}_0}$$
- Flux of polarization P across a closed surface: $$\oint P\, dS=-q',$$ where q' is the algebraic sum of bound charges enclosed by this surface.
- Vector D and Gauss's theorem for it:$$D=\varepsilon E+P, \oint D\, dS=q,$$where q is the algebraic sum of extraneous charges inside a closed surface.
- Relations at the boundary between two dielectrics:$$P_{2n}- P_{1n}=-{\sigma}',D_{2n}-D_{1n}=\sigma, E_{2\tau}=E_{1\tau}$$where a' and a are the surface densities of bound and extraneous charges, and the unit vector n of the normal is directed from medium 1 to medium 2.
- In isotropic dielectrics:$$P=x{\varepsilon}_0 E, D=\varepsilon {\varepsilon}_0 E, \varepsilon =1+x.$$
- In the case of an isotropic uniform dielectric filling up all the space between the equipotential surfaces:$$E=\frac{E_0}{\varepsilon}.$$

### Exclude node summary :

y

### Exclude node links:

0